Symposium (2nd day)
Plenary panel I: 2nd day“Rebuilding and Resilience of Education toward a New Stage-Voices from Japan”
This symposium will consider ways of reviving education after wars, natural disasters and pandemics experienced in Japan. Humanity has never been free from wars, disasters, and pandemics to date. At the same time, humanity exists today because of the history of reconstruction that followed such crises. Japan has had outstanding experiences in reconstructing itself from the ravages of war, particularly the destruction caused by the Atomic Bomb dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945), the Tohoku earthquake (2011) and the COVID-19 pandemic (2019).
In this symposium, three leading researchers in Japan will introduce case studies on rebuilding and resilience of education that could be useful for other post-crises states. The symposium will offer various insights from the three case studies where the Japanese society reconstructed and recovered after different human and natural disasters. The symposium will provide an opportunity for the participants to learn and discuss how Japan has restored its society and education after such crises.
Hiroshima’s Resilience, and the Regenerative Role of Education
Luli van der Does
(Associate Professor, Hiroshima University)
Today, visitors to Hiroshima enjoy pleasant strolls along the city’s riverside and through lush green parks, oblivious to the tragic events of 78 years ago. However, the contrast between the city’s modern skyscrapers and the ruins at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, commonly known as the Genbaku (Atomic Bomb) Dome, and designated as a World Heritage Site, is striking enough to make one wonder why Hiroshima is called the City of Peace. The monument embodies the plea that the atrocity of nuclear war and the series of conflicts that led to it should never be repeated. Those who survived the atomic bombing and its aftermath and who lived through the reconstruction of Hiroshima wish to pass on the wisdom that the key to preventing humanity’s self-destruction lies in education, which empowers us to think critically and constructively.
In the aftermath of the bombing, Hiroshima suffered natural disasters, the collapse of social institutions, extreme poverty, disease, violent crime and social unrest. Although various innovative measures were implemented to mediate the growing challenges, it was the people in the midst of the crisis who led the recovery efforts themselves. Through this process, both the survivors and their city underwent profound transformations encompassing material and personal aspects of their self-identity, aided by discourses of resilience and regeneration.
This paper utilises recent empirical evidence and draws upon the analytical framework of memory studies to uncover how the survivors sustained themselves in the aftermath of the atomic bombing and the crucial role education played in the ongoing reconstruction of their society and the regeneration of lives. The paper will cover the important implications of these insights for current and future generations.
“Educational Recovery from the Great East Japan Disaster”
(Professor, Hiroshima University)
On March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake with a magnitude of 9 struck eastern Japan. This was the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900, when seismic observations started, and the largest in Japan. I was in Sendai of Miyagi Prefecture, the largest city in the Tohoku region, when the earthquake struck. Immediately after the earthquake, lifelines such as electricity, water, and gas were cut off, which drastically changed our daily life to live in an abnormal situation. Naturally, schooling was also suspended from that day onward. The damage to buildings was more extensive, and the campus where I was working at the time suffered billions of yen in damage, making it impossible for us to teach classes. More serious than the major earthquake, however, was the damage caused by the tsunami. Although Japan had prepared for tsunami damage and taken countermeasures, the tsunami was much larger than expected, measuring 10 to 15 meters in height, hitting the coastal areas, engulfing towns, and washing away buildings and people. The total number of dead and missing was approximately 20,000. I was stunned to see the wasteland after the sea water receded. Even more serious was the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima Prefecture, located in the southern part of Miyagi Prefecture. The tsunami engulfed the nuclear facilities, causing the uranium cooling system to lose control and spread radioactivity. As a result, residents of Fukushima Prefecture were forced to leave their hometowns and begin living in new locations. This is an overview of the Great East Japan Earthquake. My report will give an overview of the disaster, especially in the Tohoku region, and then present the disaster situation in terms of education and the key points of what kind of reconstruction has been attempted. I will report on the characteristics and challenges of the respective efforts to not only restore the daily life of schools, but also to make the most of the disaster experience.
“Learning Innovation in the Post COVID-19 Society: In Defense of Public and Democratic Education in Japan and Asian Countries”
(Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo)
Children were the biggest victims of the COVID 19. Children were deprived of their human right to learn due to prolonged school closures and restrictions on learning, and the learning loss caused them to lose a considerable amount of lifetime wage and hope for present and future well-being. On the other hand, the pandemic has accelerated the pace of the fourth industrial revolution, widening the gap between rich and poor and the exploding education market, which has put public education at risk. In addition, the Russian military invasion to Ukraine has also created the threat of nuclear war and global economic stagnation.
In response to multi-layered crisis described above, how can public education defend democratic education and promote innovation in learning for children who will be the protagonists in this new stage of society? In this presentation, I would like to compare the responses to the pandemic in Japan and other Asian countries, and explore some characteristic features of further innovation in learning and the structure of the dilemma facing teachers.
I will refer to another issue. What leadership role should educational leaders play in school reforms that promote educational resilience and sustainability? Following issues are discussed here, (1) the priority of sharing a vision in reform, for constructing learning and caring community, (2) the two strategies of disruptive innovation and sustainable innovation, and (3) the significance of democratic autonomy and professional learning community in public schools.
(Lecturer, Nagoya University)
Kanako N. Kusanagi is a Lecturer, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Japan. Her research interest is how to support teachers’ professional learning centered on student learning in Japan and abroad. Her expertise is the sociological analysis of foreign transfer in Japanese education models such as Lesson Study and Tokkatsu. She has been working in Indonesia since 2004 to support community development and educational projects. In addition, she has been leading several ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) projects. Her publications include Lesson Study as Pedagogic Transfer: A Sociological Analysis (Springer Nature, 2022) and the Japanese Educational Model of Holistic Education: TOKKATSU (co-authored, World Scientific, 2019).
(Professor, Hiroshima University, CICE)
Taiji Hotta is a Professor at Center for the Study of International Cooperation at Hiroshima University. He obtained Ph.D at University of Illinois. He specialises in comparative education, the study of educational development, educational exchanges, and the development of higher education. His recent research has targeted the alighted credit transfer system in Asian higher education.
Symposium (3rd day)
Plenary panel II: 3rd day
Crisis? What crisis?
International organisations, crisis narratives and education policy debate
The idea of ‘education in crisis’ has become entrenched in global policy discourse, to the extent that a pressing need to ‘fix’ education is today widely seen as axiomatic. Meanwhile, various sources of turmoil and disruption – political, environmental, economic, epidemiological – pose undeniable challenges for the provision of education as for that of other public goods. But the perceived urgency of ‘fixing’ education is heightened by the widespread perception that it is to our schools and teachers (and to ‘youth’) that we should look ultimately to save humanity from the myriad crises it faces. Not only is education expected to solve problems bequeathed by past crises; it is also expected to prevent future ones – by rendering learners ‘resilient’ and capable of adapting and innovating their way past any obstacles life may throw in their path. Such views impose on education policymakers and administrators, on educators and, ultimately, on young learners themselves an enormous burden of expectation and responsibility.
In this session, panelists will discuss how notions of ‘crisis’ are used by international organisations to shape the global education policy agenda, considering especially (but not exclusively) the course and aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic. Special reference will be made to Asian contexts, and particularly to the case of Sri Lanka, where the legacy of civil war, economic dysfunction and disease have in recent years caused massive dislocation, and where international organisations have played a significant role in influencing the educational response.
- What are we talking about when we talk about ‘crises’ in relation to education?
- Where does the idea of ‘education in crisis’ come from? Which actors have been especially crucial in promoting crisis narratives, and what have been their interests and agendas?
- How and why do some actors or organisations seek to exaggerate the potential of education, and what are the dangers in this?
- What agendas inform the growing emphasis on using education to foster various forms of ‘resilience’? To what extent is talk of ‘resilience’ emancipatory or potentially oppressive?
- In what ways is education policy discourse used to assign or deflect blame for actually existing crises – political, environmental, economic or otherwise?
- How have the diversity of policy responses to the Covid-19 pandemic revealed divergent assumptions about the essential purposes of education? What educational ‘solutions’ were pushed by international organisations during the pandemic, why, and with what consequences?
- Is education in crisis and, if so, what is the nature of this crisis?
The panel will begin with five-minute opening statements from each panelist, followed by a moderated discussion. The discussion will then be opened up to brief questions or comments from the audience.Panelists:
- Audrey Bryan (Dublin City University)
- Maren Elfert (King’s College London)
- Nishara Fernando (University of Colombo)
- Fazal Rizvi (University of Melbourne)
Fazal Rizvi is an Emeritus Professor of Global Studies in Education at the University of Melbourne, as well as at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has written extensively on issues of identity and culture in transnational contexts, globalization and education policy, internationalization of higher education, and Australia-Asia relations. A sequel to his widely acclaimed book, Globalizing Education Policy (Routledge 2010) has recently been published under the title, Reimagining Globalization and Education (Routledge 2022). He is an editor-in-chief of the 4th edition of International Encyclopedia of Education (Elsevier 2022). Fazal is currently researching educational reform in Bhutan. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Social Sciences, a past Editor of the journal, Discourse: Studies in Cultural Politics of Education, and a past President of the Australian Association of Research in Education.
Maren Elfert is Senior Lecturer in International Education at King’s College London. Her areas of research are global governance of education and the influence of international organizations on educational ideas and policies. She is blog editor of NORRAG, submissions editor of the International Review of Education, and member of the editorial board of Comparative Education.
Nishara Fernando is Professor in Sociology attached to the Department of Sociology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. He was the former Head of Department of Sociology and Director Social Policy Analysis and Research Centre (SPARC) University of Colombo. Over the 23 years of service, he has contributed as a principal investigator and a country lead, in several international sociological and multi-disciplinary research and capacity development projects on disaster management, building resilience among vulnerable groups, pandemic preparedness, community empowerment, displacement and relocation, funded by UKGCRF, ERASMUS +, Swiss National Science Foundation etc. He has been widely published in international hi indexed journals, edited book chapters and monographs on youth and education, disaster management, displacement, and relocation.
Audrey Bryan is an Associate Professor of Sociology in the School of Human Development at Dublin City University’s Institute of Education. She specialises in the sociology of education, the sociology of childhood and (critical) global citizenship education. Her most recent research critically explores the increasing focus on “brainhood”, neuroscience and social-emotional learning in education. A related aspect of her current research is the figure of the “21st Century Child” in global educational policy and its effects on educational programming, curricula, teacher-student and parent-teacher relationships.
Edward Vickers is UNESCO Chair in Education for Peace, Social Justice and Global Citizenship at Kyushu University, and President of the Comparative Education Society of Asia. He researches the history and politics of education in contemporary Asia, especially in Chinese societies (the PRC, Hong Kong and Taiwan). He also researches the politics of conflict-related heritage in East Asia. His books include Education and Society in Post-Mao China (2017; with Zeng Xiaodong), Constructing Modern Asian Citizenship (2015; with Krishna Kumar), and Remembering Asia’s World War Two (2019; with Mark Frost and Daniel Schumacher). He co-chaired a working group on ‘Context’ for the UNESCO report Reimagining Education (2022), coordinated by the UNESCO Mahatma Gandhi Institute in New Delhi.
CESA 2023 Meet the Editors session
Interested in what journals exist in the Comparative Education field and how they differ from each other? Curious about what each journal emphasises and looks for in submitted manuscripts? Then come join us at the CESA 2023 Meet the Editors session, to be held in Room 2 from 14:00-16:00 on Saturday, 25 November. The session will bring together Editors of four journals in the field: Comparative Education, Comparative Education Review, Compare and Journal of International Cooperation. The Editors will discuss the Journals’ aims and scope, intended audience, journal statistics, and/or features of the journal in comparison to other journals in the field. They will also touch on their peer-review processes to demystify how they reach decisions of rejection and acceptance. The audience will have opportunities to ask questions and interact with the Editors.
JICE Writers’ Workshop (November 27 – November 29, 2023)
Call for Applications
Apply for the JICE Writers’ Workshop held during the CESA 2023
JICE is organising an on-site Writers’ Workshop for those who aim to submit their manuscripts to the Journal of International Cooperation in Education (JICE). The workshop will be led by the JICE Editorial Team.
JICE is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that engages with unconventional approaches to educational development and knowledge generation. The Editors welcome original research articles based on empirical data, as well as theoretical, conceptual and methodological papers that embrace untapped intellectual resources to problematise the dominant mode of policy-making and practices in the global south (please see our Aims and Scope here ).
If you are accepted to participate in the Workshop, you are expected to submit a full draft to the JICE Editorial Office in advance of the workshop. On the day of the workshop, you will first give a short presentation of your draft paper, on which the JICE Editors will give some comments and suggestions. Other participants may also ask you some questions.
If you would like to participate, please check the “Workshop Participation Request” box on the CESA abstract submission form. Participants will be selected and notified by the end of June and will then be asked to submit their manuscripts by the end of August.
* You will be asked to apply for this workshop with the same research content as presented at the CESA oral presentation. (You may do some editing, if you needed. And you must submit a full draft for this workshop).
* Spaces are limited to up to 10 people. Participants will be selected on the basis of the abstract submitted here .
- To be an early career researcher
- To submit a manuscript to JICE
- To submit a full draft paper by 31 August 2023
- Travel expenses support (for those who are based in Africa: up to ¥130,000, for those who are based in Asia: up to ¥70,000)
- Free accommodation from 23 (check-in) to 30 (check-out) November
- Free English proofreading (up to twice)